Part I: Essay Questions
1. Essay 1
The purpose of the Final Exam is to assess your understanding of the main statistical concepts covered in this course and to evaluate your ability to critically review a quantitative research article.
A group of researchers conducted an experiment to determine which vaccine is more effective for preventing getting the flu. They tested two different types of vaccines: a shot and a nasal spray. To test the effectiveness, 1000 participants were randomly selected with 500 people getting the shot and 500 the nasal spray. Of the 500 people were treated with the shot, 80 developed the flu and 420 did not. Of the people who were treated with the nasal spray, 120 people developed the flu and 380 did not. The level of significance was set at .05. The proportion of people who were treated with the shot who developed the flu = .16, and the proportion of the people who were treated with the nasal spray was .24. The calculated p value = .0008.
For this essay, describe the statistical approaches (e.g., identify the hypotheses and research methods) used in this excerpt from a research study. Interpret the statistical results and examine the limitations of the statistical methods. Finally, evaluate the research study as a whole and apply what you have learned about hypothesis testing and inferential statistics by discussing how you might conduct a follow-up study.
Your essay must address the following points:
• Describe the research question for this experiment.
o What were the null and alternative hypotheses?
o Were the results of this test statistically significant?
o If so, why were they significant?
• Would the researchers reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis?
• Do the results provide sufficient evidence to support the alternative hypothesis?
• Was the sample appropriate for this study? Explain your answer.
• What are some possible limitations to this study?
• Discuss how you would conduct a follow up study to this one. Explain your answer.
• Describe the difference between practical and statistical significance.
The length of each essay should be one to two double-spaced pages (excluding title and reference pages). Use 12-point font and format your paper with regular 1-inch margins. Do not include the essay prompt in your document. It will not count toward the length requirement for your essays. APA
Text book used Tanner, D. (2011). Statistics for the Behavioral & Social Sciences. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.