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(1) a.Explain fully the Law of Variable Proportions. b. What is Consumer Surplus ? Analyse the…

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(1) a.Explain fully the Law of Variable Proportions.b. What is Consumer Surplus ? Analyse the Marshall’s measurement of consumer surplus.2. a) Critically explain the Revealed Preference Theory of demand.b) What is utility ? Explain fully the law of Diminishing Marginal utility.

General Questions: 1. Where are you from? A. Asia B. Europe C. Africa D. America 2. Your scope of…

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General Questions:
1. Where are you from?
A. Asia B. Europe C. Africa D. America
2. Your scope of age?
A. 16-18 B. 19-25 C. over 26
3. What is your gender?
A. Male B. Female C. Other
Sub Questions:
Dose diet habit affects mental well-being?
1. How often do you eat vegetables?
A. Daily B. Weekly C. Monthly
2. How many meals do you eat a day?
A. 1-2 B. 2-3 C. over 3
3. Do you like to drink alcohol?
YES/NO
How the alcohol affects mental well-being? (IF I.3 Tip YES)
1. How many times do you drink a week?
A. 1-2 B. 2-3 C. over 3
2. How much alcohol do you drink each time? (200ml per cup)
A. 1-2 cups B. 2-3 cups C. 3-5 cups D. over 5 cups
3. How many times did you feel blue or unhappy a month?
A. 1-2 B. 2-3 C. 3-5 D. over 5
What students and college should do to decline effect of mental health problems?
1. Would you like to face mental health problems on you?
YES/NO
2. Do you see doctor to ask mental issues regularly?
YES/NO
3. What would you do if you have mental health problems?
A. Talk with friends B. See Doctor C. Stay alone D. Do sports
4. What do you think that the best way to deal with mental health issues? (E.g. play with
friends)
_________________________________________________________
PM504 Chen Ling T0010447
Abstract
The mental health issues always impact students in college and university.
This research investigated that how the alcohol abuse and diet habit affect the
mental health of NTIC students as well as present the suggestion which could
decline negative effects of mental health problems on students.
This research used the quantitative method to investigate. Taking 30
respondents in NTIC and sort them for 3 groups (Asia, Europe, Africa). There
are 10 students in each group.
Through this research, the findings are obvious that the alcohol abuse and
diet habit changing really affects the diet habit of NTIC students as well as the
mental well-being of them. At the same time, this research also found that the
alcohol ingestion also impact other behavior of students.
1. Introduction
Regardless of the past or the present, the Mental Well-being issues affects
students in schooling period, especially the International students is
influenced deeply. Thus, this problem must be concerned. This issue not only
influences study of students, but also the quality of life, even their own future.
In the colleges which are full of International students is both haunted by
problems of decreasing study skills and the fluctuated mood of them when
students communicate with others. This project investigated sources of
mental health issues of the NTIC students.
After investigation, what mental health issues occurred on the NTIC students
are fluctuated mood, irritability, anxiety, and procrastination etc. Causes of this
situation mainly include excessive intake of alcohol, irregular time schedule
and less intake of vegetables. Especially, that students always do not want to
share these problems with friends, tutors and even doctor lead to the
aggravating state of illness.
PM504 Chen Ling T0010447
To supply an event which occurred in 2005, a student in the UK committed
suicide because of pressure of study. According to the survey of XXX in XXX,
that student often drank alcohol to release stresses as well as always being
isolated during the student under the situation of mental health illness. His
behaviors like drinking alcohol and being isolated lead this normal mental
issues to a suicide event. The indoctrinate indicate that a little mental problem
and the wrong life habit could cause fearful consequences. So, this project is
worthy to research. In this research, exhorting international students that how
to resolve mental issues coordinating with colleges and reducing effects of
mental problems are the final purpose.
This research will follow these questions:
1. Dose diet habit affects mental well-being?
2. How the alcohol affects mental health of students?
3. What students and colleges could do to decline effect of mental health
problems?
For the purpose of precise data, the method of this research is quantitative.
Taking 30 respondents in NTIC and sort them for 3 groups (Asia, Europe,
Africa). There are 10 students in each group.
2. Methodology
In this research, what methodologies have been used are quantitative
research method and qualitative research method. The quantitative research
method could find and reflect the overall condition of research targets.
Through analysis of data, the main factor, which could lead to issues in
research, could be found using this method. The data could also easily to
collect, because questions of survey are usually easier to answer and
understand for respondents. The qualitative research method is that give
some open question to respondents to answer. This method could discover
what respondents would do or psychological status when they deal with
issues. Relatively, the data is more difficult to collect, so this method is only
PM504 Chen Ling T0010447
used slightly.
Questionnaire, in this research, are administered by method of face-to-face.
This pattern is convenient to communicate with respondents as well as
questions from respondents can be answer on time.
This questionnaire is designed to include three types of questions, four
sections and thirteen questions.
Example 1: How many times did you feel blue or unhappy a month?
Example 2: Would you like to face mental health problems on you?
Example 3: What do you think that the best way to deal with mental health
issues? (E.g. talking with friends)
Sample 1 is the single choice question as well as this type of question, in this
questionnaire, will give at least three selections.
Sample 2 is the question with ‘yes’ or ‘no’.
Sample 3 is the unique open question in this questionnaire.
That the sampling strategy was used, in this research, is based on accuracy
and quality of data. It is otherwise from regular paper questionnaire, but
through chatting and motion communicating with respondents to obtain more
precise and sincere data. In addition, for the purpose of obtaining each
feature which come from different regions and cultures, samples has been
separated by 3 different areas.
There are overall thirty respondents participated in this research. Based on
areas where they come from, there are 10 respondents, who come from Asia,
Europe and Africa, in each region group respectively. The quantity of males
are nineteen and females are eleven. They are further comprising age of 16-
18 group, 19-25 group and over 26 group. 5 students are in group 16-18, 15
students are in 19-25 group and 10 students in over 26 group.
The purposes of this research are that finding out what the status of life
students are located. Through understanding their life habit, such as whether
they drink alcohol or have regular life style, to find which factor could lead
students to mental health issues.
PM504 Chen Ling T0010447
Every questionnaire with one respondent could spent a long time to
communicate and explain. Some conditions as follow:
Students did not view questions carefully and give the random answers.
Students’ answers which they want to answer are not in scale of selections.
The private information that collecting using questionnaire will be cryptic
austerely. Before answering the questions, the notice, may use anonym, will
be mentioned. The information from answer of question will not be announced
symmetrically, but will be announced without name. It could promised privacy.
3. Literature review
Recent years, mental health issues have been beginning affected the NTIC
students. They have been beset by fluctuated moods, depression and rage
etc. Especially the college students who facing to exam pressures. Suicide
tendency, depression and many other problems are disturbing students with
mental problems. Even if, students always be hurt, there are still plentiful of
approaches to guide them keeping away from these issues. Reasons that
lead to mental health problems is multitudinous. So research and
understanding of these reasons is very important. The irregular diet habit,
alcohol abusing, disable to release stresses or circumstances would
contribute to mental health issues among students.
3.1 Review relate to “How the alcohol and diet habit affect mental health
of students”
In recent years, times of mental health issues on NTIC students have been
risen dramatically and seriously. Hunt, and Eisenberg, demonstrated the data
of college students had tendency to commit suicide because they have mental
problems: “According to a study of 26,000 students from 70 colleges and
universities in 2006, 6% of undergraduates and 4% of graduate students
reported having seriously considered suicide in the previous 12 months
(2009)” At the same time, they also pointed out that, there were 17 % of
PM504 Chen Ling T0010447
college students had suffered the depression (Hunt & Eisenberg, 2009). From
data above, Hunt and Eisenberg argued that students face mental health
problems because of alcohol abusing, 18% suffering with personality disorder,
12% struggling with anxiety disorder and 11% students’ mood was disorder
(Hunt & Eisenberg, 2009).
These data and points from Hunt and Eisenberg prove that alcohol abusing
would seriously impact mental health of students in NTIC.
According to points of Wechsler, Henry, and Toben, the alcohol abuse could
affect diet habit as well (2008). They indicated that alcohol seriously impacts
physical function and secreting of beta endorphin (a kind of material which
can adjust and control well-being). At the meantime, alcohol abusing could
also lead to changing of diet habit which detest vegetables and any kind of
lacking food with thrill flavor (Wechsler, Henry, and Toben, 2008). Jacka,
Felice, et al, also keep the same point of alcohol abusing, they argued that
alcohol could lull alcohol drinkers’ gustatory nerves and contribute to they like
to eat and drink the food with thrill taste (2011). They pointed simultaneously
that diet habit could affect mental health easily, the body which lacking vitamin
and dietary fiber could lead to unbalanced pH value in body. At the meantime,
this result could contribute to testy mood and depression (Jacka, Felice N., et
al, 2011).
These data and points above prove that diet habit is also an important reason
which could lead to mental health problems.
3.2 What students and college should do to decline effect of mental
health problems?
Cleary, Horsfall, Baines and Happell provided methods that the students and
the college could do to decline the effects of mental health peoblems:
“General education programmes with an orientation towards health promotion
and holistic wellbeing being available to all students, would assist with de-
stigmatisation, increase mental health literacy and contribute to prevention
(2011)” According to these approaches above, the college could establish
PM504 Chen Ling T0010447
classes of mental education. However, whether students want to take this
class is a limitation of this method. Authors advised that: “Constrictive
Teaching Approach” to identify and limit the impact of mental health issues
(Cleary, Horsfall, Baines & Happell, 2011).They also advised that the college
should increase times of communication with students and understand what
situation they are under (Cleary, Horsfall, Baines & Happell, 2011).
M Blanco, Carlos, et al argued that, they keep the same point that students
should accept any type of communication with college as well as they should
do as follow to decrease risk of mental health issues. They also provided
some proposals when students recognized that they have issues of mental
health: 1. See the Doctor weekly. 2. If meet serious situation, at least to stay
one night in the hospital for observation mental state. 3. The regular use of
prescription drugs until the emotional stability (Blanco, Carlos, et al, 2008).
4. Findings and discussion
4.1 Introduction of findings and charts
After the research, this section will present the main findings of this survey
among the NTIC students. In the following context, the information of research
respondents will be introduced firstly, at the meantime, briefly explain the
reason of sort of respondents. (See Figure. 1.).
The next paragraph will be the evidence which could support next findings
and discussions. It presents Quantity of NTIC Students from different regions
like using the alcohol and provides the total quantity of alcohol drinker
separate by the age. It finds that the most respondents of alcohol drinkers are
from the Africa (See Figure. 2.).
The third and the fourth paragraph will demonstrate differences of behavior
between alcohol drinkers and non-drinkers. That includes life habit (Vegetable
PM504 Chen Ling T0010447
ingestion and Pattern of daily meals) and the alcohol drinkers’ mental status
(Times feel blue or unhappy) which relate to times and quantity they drink
alcohol refreshments. The total finding is that the alcohol ingestion affects the
life habit and mental status (See Figure. 3, 4.).
The last paragraph will introduce the findings of how respondents deal with
mental health problems on them and the attitude after they have mental
issues (See Figure. 5, 6.). At the meantime, relate the finding of these two
charts to the alcohol drinker and non-drinker. Then, present the conclusion of
this research.
4.2 Main finding and discussion
4.2.1 Sort of Respondents
First of all, the types of respondents had been selected who are from 3
different regions (Asia, Europe and Africa). There are 10 people in each
areas. They also could be sort by yellow race, white people and black people.
The age of 19-25 occupies the most part of all respondents. As shown as the
following figure.
Figure. 1:
Research Respondents Sort
7
55
6
4
33
MaleFemale16-1819-25over 26
(Figure. 1, Research Respondents Sort, from: The research questionnaire in
Appendix 2)
PM504 Chen Ling T0010447
The sort as different regions could be propitious to further findings’ veracity.
Because, there are different cultures, habits and attitudes of alcohol between
these regions. Based on these features of 3 areas people, this research could
find that which factor could easily lead to the mental health problems.
4.2.2 Distinction between 3 areas people
In this section, the data will explain quantity of people who drink alcohol.
Through the data which the “Figure. 2.” presents, all the Africa students in this
survey like to drink alcohol. By contrast, students who drink alcohol
refreshments from the Asia are only 2. Alcohol drinkers from the Europe are
also occupy the most of all European students. It’s worth noting that all of
alcohol drinkers are in group of 19-25 and over 26 years old.
Figure. 2:
Quantity of NTIC Students From Different
Regions Like Using Alcohol
4
over 26
19-25
16-18
Africa
Europe
Aisa
0246810121416
3
2
7
(Figure. 2, Quantity of NTIC Students from Different Regions like Using
Alcohol, from: The research questionnaire in Appendix 2)
According to the Hunt and Eisenberg in 2009 that the alcohol ingestion impact
students’ mental well-being after they drank as well as the students over 25
years old would face the serious risk of mental health problems occurring.
Therefore, student alcohol drinkers in this survey would face more negative
impacts (E.g. Life Habit, Pattern of daily meals and mental status etc.) in the
further life after they drink alcohol frequently.
PM504 Chen Ling T0010447
4.2.3 Impact by alcohol of diet habit and mental status
The research investigated alcohol drinkers’ diet style and habit in this section.
In the data, it is obviously presented in the Figure 3 that vegetable ingestion
situation of alcohol drinkers is taking the dismal view. There are 15 students
choose to eat vegetable weekly in scale of totally 19 alcohol drinkers, by
contrast, there are 8 non-drinker students choose to ingest vegetable every
day in total 11 non-drinkers.
The other part of this chart, there are 12 drinkers in the NTIC eating 1-2 times
a day as well as even there are 2 drinkers select to eat over 3 times per day.
There are 6 and 5 non-drinkers choose to eat 1-2 times and 2-3 times
respectively.
These 2 types of data indicates that ingestion of alcohol seriously affect the
diet habit and pattern of daily meals. Henry, and Toben argued that alcohol
over-ingestion could bring students irregular diet till they stop to drink for over
6 month (2008). At the meantime, irregular diet and life habit could lead to
many troubles, such as mood depression, pressure or well-being decreased.
Figure. 3:
Life Habit Between Alcohol Drinkers and Non-
Drinkers
15
8
2
DaliyWeeklyMonthly1-2 times2-3timesover 3 times
Ingestion) (Meals Per Day)
(Figure. 3, Life Habit Between Alcohol Drinkers and Non-Drinkers, from: The
research questionnaire in Appendix 2)
2
2
1
(Vegetable
Drink AlcoholDo not Drink Alcohol
According the result and prediction above from the Figure 3, the data of over-
PM504 Chen Ling T0010447
drinking will be presented by the Figure 4. All the Africa students and most of
the European students in NTIC drink alcohol between 1-2 weeks and most of
them drink over 5 cups of alcohol (200ml/Cup). Most of Africa drinkers in
NTIC felt 2-3 times blue or unhappy per month as well as 6 European drinks
felt that reflection for 3-5 times monthly. Even there is 1 Africa students felt
over 5 times of that reflection each month.
Figure. 4:
Mental Status among Alcohol Drinkers From
Different Regions based on Quantity and Frequency
of Drinking
(Time Span of
Drink Alcohol)
(Capacity Per Drink 200ml/Cup) (Times Feeling Blue or Unhappy Monthly)
1010
22
1
2-3
over 3
Weeks
Weeks
1-2 Cups2-3 Cups3-5 CupsOver 5
AisaEuropeAfrica
(Figure. 4, Mental Status among Alcohol Drinkers from Different Regions
based on Quantity and Frequency of Drinking, from: The research
questionnaire in Appendix 2)
4.2.4 Attitudes and Performances when Issues Occurred
As the result of research, the alcohol lead to diet issues as well as further
trigger mental health problems which bring the NTIC students many troubles.
In this step, the research will present what attitudes and performances could
be arisen by the NTIC students.
The main findings of this section are in the following content.
The results of whether students would like to face mental health problems on
them and whether they would like to see psychological doctor regularly to
monitor their mental status are very magical (See Figure 5).
PM504 Chen Ling T0010447
Figure. 5:
Performance After Mental Health Problems
Occurred
(Like to Face
Problems)
(See Psychological Doctor Regularly)
8
55
7
3
2
YESNOYESNO
AsiaEuropeAfrica
(Figure. 5, Performance after Mental Health Problems Occurred, from: The
research questionnaire in Appendix 2)
The figure 5 above indicates that the proportion between 2 groups (Yes and
No) is balanced in each question. The minute difference is that quantity of
students who want to face the mental health problems are more than who
want to see the doctor.
This trend still continue to the next question (See Figure 6).
Figure. 6:
Attitude After Mental Health Problems
Occured
8
6
5
3
Talk with friendsSee DoctorStay AloneDo Sports
AsiaEuropeAfrica
(Figure. 6, Performance after Mental Health Problems Occurred, from: The
research questionnaire in Appendix 2)
PM504 Chen Ling T0010447
Students prefer to talk with friends and less of them choose to stay alone, do
physical exercises and to see doctor. Talking with friend admittedly is a
convenient way to ease mental health problems, but it could not be a way to
resolve.
As the argument of Gravel, Ronald, and Béland in 2005, he pointed that
people can face mental problems on them could help them to cure mental
illness, however, the help of doctor would be more professional.
Thus, how to decline the effects of mental health issues, this problem could
not be resolved well by students self, but they could obtain help and
professional guide from doctor.
4.2.5 Problems the research found and suggestion
Additionally, 30% of respondents believe that there are lots of ways to deal
with the mental health issues. One of male respondent demonstrated his
opinions that do sports, talking with friends or go to the social place would be
one of the best way to resolve mental health issues. Others opinions almost
like his thinking above. So, no one choose to accept the way which could get
more professional help. To release stress, the methods above could be useful,
however, if really students face mental health illness, to see the doctor will
always be the first recommendation.

INFORMATIONPaper Format: Abstract page Number of pages: Number of slides: Number of…

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February 23, 2016 / Leave a comment

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INFORMATIONPaper Format: Abstract page Number of pages: Number of slides: Number of questions: Number of problems: Academic Level: Type of work: Type of paper: Sources neededMLA No 3 Double spaced 0 0 0 Undergraduate Writing from scratch Book review 0Subject Anthropology Topic Guided readingPaper details1.Describe the Tsembaga system of agriculture. What types of crops do they plant? What is the nature of the Tsembaga gardens—how technically are they planted? Where are they planted? How are they harvested? What portion of the diet to crops make up in the Tsembaga diet?
2.Roy Rappaport reports that from a purely energetic standpoint the raising of pigs by the Tsembaga make little sense? What roles then do pigs play in the diet of these people? Why are pigs important socially? (be detailed)
3.According to Rappaport mature “natural” ecosystems are inherently stable whereas those created by humans are the exact opposite. Explain Rappaport’s reasoning in regards to the matter.
4.Explain what you believe Rappaport means by the term “ecological imperialism.”
Those questions based on 17 papers on the book. Please make sure to write enough information, last time I did it from my friend's account and I got 20/25

 

Define Foreign Trade. Explain the need and importance of Import – Export Trade and its…

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February 23, 2016 / Leave a comment

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i)Define Foreign Trade. Explain the need and importance of Import - Export Trade and its limitations.ii) What is Social Responsibility ? Explain the nature and the advantages of Social Responsibility.iii) Write short notes :(a) Multi-national Corporations(b) Partnership Firm(c) Networking(d) E-commerce(e) Limitations of Innovation(f) Professionalisation(g) Social Audit(h) Recent Trends in Retailing

The following tasks are required to be performed in parallel with Design 4A reporting / proposal…

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February 23, 2016 / Leave a comment

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The following tasks are required to be performed in parallel with Design 4A reporting / proposal
formulation etc. Completion of the following tasks will be evaluated as part of the technical
progress of the project and as successful completion of the technical component of the project in
addition to the Design 4A reporting activities.
Week 1 - 2 : Review on electric vehicle power train topologies. Review on present system voltage /
current levels in the electric vehicle power trains (EV power trains)
Weeks2 - 3 : Review of available DC circuit breaker technology for EV applications. Limitation and
their principle of operation
Week 2 - Progress meeting with supervisor
Weeks 3 - Summarising the available technology options and selection of an appropriate technology
for a more detailed study / simulation.
Week 4 - Implementation of a simulation model of the selected DC circuit breaker.
Week 4 - Progress meeting with supervisor
Week 5 - Analysis of the simulation model of the selected DC circuit breaker and potential
- Consideration of experimental implementation of a test setup and selection of
improvements.
components for placement of orders
Week 5 - Progress meeting with supervisor
Week 6 and 7 - Further consideration of experimental implementation of a test setup and selection
of components for placement of orders
Week 7 - Progress meeting with supervisor
Week 8 and 9 –Iteration of Simulation and analysis
Week 9 - Progress meeting with supervisor
Week 10 and 12 –Final of Simulation and analysis
Week 11 - Progress meeting with supervisor

The following tasks are required to be performed in parallel with Design 4A reporting / proposal…

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February 23, 2016 / Leave a comment

Question

The following tasks are required to be performed in parallel with Design 4A reporting / proposal
formulation etc. Completion of the following tasks will be evaluated as part of the technical
progress of the project and as successful completion of the technical component of the project in
addition to the Design 4A reporting activities.
Week 1 - 2 : Review on electric vehicle power train topologies. Review on present system voltage /
current levels in the electric vehicle power trains (EV power trains)
Weeks2 - 3 : Review of available DC circuit breaker technology for EV applications. Limitation and
their principle of operation
Week 2 - Progress meeting with supervisor
Weeks 3 - Summarising the available technology options and selection of an appropriate technology
for a more detailed study / simulation.
Week 4 - Implementation of a simulation model of the selected DC circuit breaker.
Week 4 - Progress meeting with supervisor
Week 5 - Analysis of the simulation model of the selected DC circuit breaker and potential
- Consideration of experimental implementation of a test setup and selection of
improvements.
components for placement of orders
Week 5 - Progress meeting with supervisor
Week 6 and 7 - Further consideration of experimental implementation of a test setup and selection
of components for placement of orders
Week 7 - Progress meeting with supervisor
Week 8 and 9 –Iteration of Simulation and analysis
Week 9 - Progress meeting with supervisor
Week 10 and 12 –Final of Simulation and analysis
Week 11 - Progress meeting with supervisor

 

The following tasks are required to be performed in parallel with Design 4A reporting / proposal…

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February 23, 2016 / Leave a comment

Question

The following tasks are required to be performed in parallel with Design 4A reporting / proposal
formulation etc. Completion of the following tasks will be evaluated as part of the technical
progress of the project and as successful completion of the technical component of the project in
addition to the Design 4A reporting activities.
Week 1 - 2 : Review on electric vehicle power train topologies. Review on present system voltage /
current levels in the electric vehicle power trains (EV power trains)
Weeks2 - 3 : Review of available DC circuit breaker technology for EV applications. Limitation and
their principle of operation
Week 2 - Progress meeting with supervisor
Weeks 3 - Summarising the available technology options and selection of an appropriate technology
for a more detailed study / simulation.
Week 4 - Implementation of a simulation model of the selected DC circuit breaker.
Week 4 - Progress meeting with supervisor
Week 5 - Analysis of the simulation model of the selected DC circuit breaker and potential
- Consideration of experimental implementation of a test setup and selection of
improvements.
components for placement of orders
Week 5 - Progress meeting with supervisor
Week 6 and 7 - Further consideration of experimental implementation of a test setup and selection
of components for placement of orders
Week 7 - Progress meeting with supervisor
Week 8 and 9 –Iteration of Simulation and analysis
Week 9 - Progress meeting with supervisor
Week 10 and 12 –Final of Simulation and analysis
Week 11 - Progress meeting with supervisor

In a class of 500 students. 200 have Economics, 200 have Mathematics and 150 have Statistics. Out of

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In a class of 500 students. 200 have Economics, 200 have Mathematics and 150 have Statistics. Out of them, 62 have both Economics and Mathematics, 120 have Mathematics and Statistics and, 58 have Economics and Statistics. Find the number of students who have all three?(a)190(b) 95(c) 310(d) 180

In a class of 500 students. 200 have Economics, 200 have Mathematics and 150 have Statistics. Out of

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In a class of 500 students. 200 have Economics, 200 have Mathematics and 150 have Statistics. Out of them, 62 have both Economics and Mathematics, 120 have Mathematics and Statistics and, 58 have Economics and Statistics. Find the number of students who have all three?(a)190(b) 95(c) 310(d) 180

 

Behavioral ethics is a new field drawing on behavioral psychology, cognitive science and related…

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February 19, 2016 / Leave a comment

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Behavioral ethics is a new field drawing on behavioral psychology, cognitive science and related
fields to determine why people make the ethical decisions, both good and bad, that they do. Much
behavioral ethics research addresses the question of why good people do bad things.
Behavioral ethics may be the next big thing” in ethics education. N.Y.U. recently asked Prof.
Jonathan Haidt, whose research is a major part of the new learning in behavioral ethics, to create a
behavioral ethics course there. And John Walsh, who helped create the Office of Compliance
Inspections and Examinations at the SEC, recently wrote in Corporate Counsel that the “ultimate
promise of behavioralethics…is that it provides pragmatic tools that have been demonstrated to
work.
2. Task: Watch the following videos:

3. Activity:
Based on the videos that you watch above, answer the following questions
1. When asked the vast majority of people will agree with the following two statements. Would you
agree with them also?
a. I have solid, well-considered ethical beliefs that can be altered only by reasoned arguments or
new evidence.
b. I have character and integrity that will carry me though when I face difficult moral choices.
2. Probably the strongest finding from the last decade research in behavioral ethics is that people
simultaneously think of themselves as good people yet frequently lie and cheat (typically in a minor
way). Is this consistent with your experience? Do you agree or disagree with the following
statements from researchers in the field?
The empirical evidence seems to point to the conclusion that we lie and cheat much more often than
we care to admit. At the same time, we strive to maintain a positive image of ourselves, and moral
values are a central component of our self-image (Francesa Gino)
Essentially, we cheat up to the level that allows us to retain our self-image as reasonably honest
individuals (Dan Ariely)
Evolution prepared us humans to be devious, self-serving, and only half-honest, inclined to grab the
lion share of goodies without being thrown out of the group. Homo sapiens became wired for
truthfulness only to the extent that it suited us, pleased others, and preserved our reputations. We
are willing to break rules to benefit ourselves, but only within limits we can justify. We are good and
fair, most of the time—at least in our own minds—but that doesnt exactly make us straight
shooters. Our internal cop stops us only when we contemplated big transgressions (Mark Matousek)
3. Most empirical research indicates that religiosity is not a significant factor in ethical behavior.
Atheists and religious people tend to say that the same actions are ethical and unethical. And while
religious people tend to give more money and time to their churches and synagogues, religious and
nonreligious people otherwise have similar profiles in terms of altruism and volunteerism. Does this
surprise you?
4. Have you known good people to do bad things? Either personally, or you've heard or read about
episodes in the media?
6. If so, how would you explain their conduct?
Activity 2 - Bounded Ethicality
1. Introduction:
Economists have often modelled human decision makers as completely rational. According to this
model, rational people know their own preferences, gather and accurately process all relevant
information, and then make rational choices that advance their own interests. However, Herbert
Simon won a Nobel Prize in economics by pointing out that people are rational, but only boundedly
so in that they seldom gather all available information, they often do not accurately process the
information that they do gather, nor do they necessarily know what it is that will make them happy.
People are rational, but boundedly so.
If the last fifty years of psychological research has proven anything, it’s that the situational often
dominates the dispositional. That is to say, our disposition or desire to be good people can be
overwhelmed by psychological or organizational factors that we may not even be aware of. These
factors adversely affect ethical decision making as well as economic decision making, meaning that
people are boundedly ethical as well as boundedly rational.
The basic notion, as spelled out by Professor Ann Tenbrunsel and her colleagues, is that systematic
and predictable organizational pressures and psychological processes cause people to engage in
ethically questionable behaviors that are inconsistent with their own preferences. Various factors
cause us to make unethical decisions that we later regret.
For example, although most of us want to act ethically, we also wish to please authority figures.
Therefore, if our boss asks us to do something unethical, we may do it without even realizing our
mistake because we are focusing on pleasing the boss rather than on the ethical dimensions of the
issue facing us.
To take another example we also have a natural desire to be ""part of the team"" at work. Therefore,
if a questionable action advances the team’s interests, as we perceive them, we may act unethically
because, again, we are focusing upon achieving the team’s goals rather than adhering to our own
ethical standards.
Most of us want to act ethically, and are certain that we will because we just know we’re good
people. But most of us are also overconfident regarding our own ethicality. This can lead to
complacency that causes us to make decisions containing ethical dimensions without reflecting
deeply.
We’re ethical, it’s true, but bounded so. I recommend a little humility. Only if we truly commit
ourselves to being ethical people and diligently guard against the organizational pressures and
psychological factors that put bounds upon our ability to be so, can we possibly realize our ethical
potential.
2. Task: Watch the following videos:

3. Activity
Based on the videos that you watch above, answer the following questions
•Do you think that acting ethically is just a matter of wanting to badly enough? Why or why not?
•What kinds of situational factors can you think of that might make it difficult for a well-intentioned
person to always do the right thing?
•Can you think of a time when you did not live up to your own ethical standards? What caused you
to depart from your own standards?
•Can you think of an example of a friend who acted unethically? Or someone in the news lately?
Without making excuses for them, can you explain why they might have made bad ethical decisions
even though they are generally good people?
•Do you think it’s possible to be completely rational when making ethical decisions? Why or why
not?
Activity 3 - Conflict of Interest
1. Introduction
Written and Narrated by Associate Professor Lamar Pierce
Incentives are pervasive in every aspect of society. People are rewarded for taking certain actions,
and not rewarded for taking others. Workers are paid for their effort and productivity, salespeople
are paid for their sales, and small business owners are rewarded with profits for successful ventures.
So long as these incentives are well-understood by everyone, they work reasonably well. They
motivate effort, performance, and social welfare. But sometimes, individuals have incentives that
conflict with their professional responsibilities, often in ways that are not transparent to the public
or in their own minds. These conflicts of interest produce serious economic and social problems.
Conflicts of interest are pervasive in markets and in society, and can motivate professionals to act in
ways that violate their responsibilities and hurt their client and employers. Doctors, for example,
may face a conflict of interest when they are paid more for some procedures than for others. Their
professional responsibility is to do what is best for a patient, but their financial incentive is not
always aligned with this responsibility. If an oncologist profits from selling chemotherapy agents to
their patients, and some agents are more expensive than others, this conflict becomes a problem.
Most doctors would never think of profiting in ways that hurt their patients, but some may either
consciously or subconsciously.
When there are conflicts of interest, you can almost guarantee that they will at least sometimes lead
to bad outcomes. Surprisingly, in many states, real estate agents can represent both the buyer and
the seller in a home transaction. The conflict in such transactions is clear. The agent could never
have both parties’ best interests in mind, just as an attorney could never adequately represent both
a plaintiff and defendant in civil lawsuit. Even professors face a conflict of interest when they’re
designing courses that will be evaluated by students seeking high grades and low workload. If the
professor is ultimately promoted based on their popularity with students, will they consider making
the course a little bit easier?
The key implication is that managers and policy-makers must constantly evaluate whether
professionals and employees might face incentives to act counter to their responsibility. Eliminating
conflicts of interest is one of the simplest and most effective ways to reduce unethical behavior. But
in order to do so, we must be willing to acknowledge that professional codes of conduct, like those
followed by doctors, lawyers, accountants, and real estate agents, do not make people immune to
these conflicts, and that these codes are rarely a justification for ignoring the likely outcomes that
conflicts of interest create.
2. Task
– Watch the following videos:

3. Activity
Based on the videos that you watch above, answer the following questions
•What conflicts of interest have you personally experienced in personal or professional roles?
•If you perceive a potential conflict for yourself, what are some ways you might ensure that this
conflict doesn’t lead to unethical behavior for you and others?
•When have others’ conflicts of interest impacted how you or those you know were treated?
•What types of policies can or do organizations implement to try to reduce conflicts of interest or
their costs?
Activity 4 - Confirmity Bias
1. Introduction
Written and Narrated by Professor Robert Prentice
Parents seldom accept as an excuse their child’s plea of ""Hey everyone else is doing it."" However,
psychological studies demonstrate that those same parents, and everyone else, tend to take their
cues for proper behavior in most social contexts from the actions of others. This pressure is called
the conformity bias.
Psychologist Solomon Asch found that when he asked subjects to tell which of three lines is the
same length as a fourth line, no one had difficulty unless they were placed in group with Asch’s
confederates who gave obviously wrong answers. Under those conditions, almost all the subjects
found it very painful to give the obviously correct answer in contradiction to the strangers’ wrong
answers. In fact, most participants gave an obviously incorrect answer at least once during the study.
This bias to conform is much greater, of course, when the others in the group are co-employees
and/or friends, or when the correct answer is not right there in black and white – as it was in the
Asch Study – but is instead a subjective—like an ethical questions.
An employee at the accounting firm KPMG challenged the ethics of tax shelters that the firm was
selling. He received a simple e-mail that said: ""You’re either on the team or off the team.""
Well everyone wants to be on the team. We all realize that loyalty is generally an important virtue.
But it causes a pressure to conform and this pressure to conform, it can been argued, helped cause
Ford employees to sell the Pinto despite awareness of its gas tank dangers, and helped A. H. Robins
employees to continue to sell the Dalkon Shield contraceptive IUD despite knowing its ghastly
medical consequences.
The impairment of individual decision making known as ""groupthink"" – where people deciding in
groups often make more extreme decisions than any individual member initially supports – can
exacerbate the conformity bias. It can be reasonably argued that loyalty and groupthink helped
Morton Thiokol employees to remain silent about known O-ring dangers that caused the Challenger
space shuttled disaster.
Psychological and organizational pressures can cause even people with good intentions to lie or
otherwise act unethically. Good character isn’t always sufficient. As Albus Dumbledore told Harry
Potter, ""It takes a great deal of bravery to stand up to our enemies, but just as much to stand up to
our friends.""
2. Task – Watch the following videos:

3. Activity:
Based on the videos that you watch above, answer the following questions
•Can you think of a time when you did something just because everyone else was doing it—even
when it didn’t feel quite right to you? Do you regret it now?
•It was recently observed that ""cheating is contagious."" Does that sound true to you? Why or why
not? If it is true, why might this be the case?
•Loyalty is generally considered a good quality. When a group to which you owe loyalty seems to be
making a decision that seems unethical to you, how should you go about trying to balance your
loyalty to the group against your own ethical integrity? Have you had an experience like that? If so,
how did you resolve it?
•Can you explain how ""groupthink"" works? Can you think of a time when you have been subject to
groupthink?
.
Activity 5 - Ethical Fading
1. Introduction
Written and Narrated by Professor Robert Prentice
In the book he wrote about his crimes, disgraced lobbyist Jack Abramoff—Casino Jack—asked:
""What was I thinking?"" This is a familiar refrain among white collar criminals. Why can they see their
ethical failings in retrospect, but not earlier when it really mattered?
Part of the explanation is what professors Ann Tenbrunsel and David Messick call ethical fading.
Imagine that you work for a company in internal audit and your boss asks you to inappropriately
massage some earnings numbers. And it happens to be the week that the company is deciding
whom to lay off in the most recent round of cutbacks. And you want to keep your job, of course. It is
possible that you will not even notice the ethical dimensions of the action you have just been asked
to take by your boss. These ethical dimensions may just fade from view.
Ethical decisions are often made almost automatically by the parts of our brain that process
emotions. Only later do our cognitive processes kick in. When we think we are reasoning to an
ethical conclusion, often all we are really doing is searching for rationalizations to support the
decision that we have already made instinctively.
As time distances us from the decision we have made, the ethical issues may start to reappear. We
may feel the need to reduce the dissonance that results from the conflict of our view of ourselves as
ethical people and the unethical action we have committed. Studies show that offering people an
opportunity to wash their hands after behaving immorally are often enough to restore their self-
image. There’s a reason we talk about starting with a ""clean"" slate.
Even if our minds cannot cause an ethical issue to fade from view, a process known as moral
disengagement can mitigate the sting of an unethical decision. Moral disengagement is a process by
which our brain enables us to turn off our usual ethical standards when we feel the psychological
need to do so, just like we’d turn off a TV when a show comes on that makes us uncomfortable.
Studies show, for example, that people who want to buy an article of clothing that they know was
manufactured with child labor will suddenly view child labor as less of a societal problem than they
thought before. Moral disengagement allows us to suspend our personal codes of ethics, yet
continue to view ourselves as ethical people.
There is no easy cure for ethical fading and moral disengagement. Our only option is to be vigilant in
looking out for ethical issues and equally circumspect in monitoring our own actions and
rationalizations.
2. Task – Watch the following Videos:

3. Activity
Based on the videos that you watch above, answer the following questions
•Can you explain the concept of ethical fading and perhaps give an example of when it happened to
you?
•Can you think of a situation where you were so intent upon pleasing an authority figure, fitting in
with your friends, or achieving a goal that you failed to give an ethical issue your full attention? Did
that situation cause you regret?
•Can you think of an example of a friend who might have been the victim of ethical fading? Or a
person in the news recently?
.
Activity 6 - Framing
1. Introduction
Written and Narrated by Professor Robert Prentice
In any kind of decision-making, context counts. The simple reframing of a situation or question can
produce a totally different answer from the same person. For example, people would rather buy a
hamburger made of meat labeled 75% fat free than meat labeled 25% fat. In fact, when questioned,
these people will tell you that the 75% fat-free burger tastes better than the 25% fat burger, even
though the burgers are identical.
When NASA was deciding whether to launch the ill-fated space shuttle Challenger, Morton Thiokol’s
engineers at first opposed the launch on safety grounds. But when their general manager instructed
the engineers to ""put on their management hats,"" he reframed the decision from one focusing on
safety to one focusing on dollars and cents. The engineers then unfortunately changed their
decision.
We need to look beyond the obvious frame of reference in business – ""will this be a profitable
decision?"" – and consider our actions from a broader perspective like ""how will this look when it’s
reported on the front page of the newspaper?""
Decisions made by business people often occur in a context where subjective factors predominate,
and the framing of an issue is particularly influential. In Enron’s declining days, the company
attempted to save money by encouraging employees to minimize travel expenses. An Enron
employee later wrote that he intentionally flouted the new policy. While this seems like a clear
ethical lapse, in the employee’s mind, he deserved to stay in the most expensive hotels and to eat at
the best restaurants because of how very hard he was working. He framed the issue in terms of his
narrow self-serving interests, not in the broader ethical context of adhering to company policy.
CFOs and accounting personnel at Enron, HealthSouth, and other scandal-ridden companies didn’t
need a philosophy course to help them figure out that their manipulation of financial statements
was unethical. Their problem was that at the time of their actions, their frame of reference was
loyalty to the company and to the company’s goal of maximizing stock price. Had those employees
been able to think in terms of the bigger ethical picture – for example, the impact of their actions on
other people’s pension funds – they might have acted differently.
2. Task – Watch the following Video
http://ethicsunwrapped.utexas.edu/video/framing
3. Activities:
•Studies show that people primed to think about business profits will make different choices than
people facing the same decision who have been primed to think about acting ethically. Can you
explain how that might affect you in your work life
•Can you think of a situation where you made a decision that you regret and probably would have
chosen differently had you looked at the choice in a different way?
•How do politicians and advertisers use framing to channel people’s decision?
•How might framing adversely affect your ethical decision making in your projected workplace?
•How can you work to ensure that ethical considerations stay in your frame of reference when you
make decisions in your career and your life?
.
Activity 8 - Fundamental Moral Unit
1. Introduction
Written and Narrated by Professor Deni Elliott
There are so many considerations in making ethical decisions, but what consideration is most
important? Different cultures and ethical systems have produced theories that favor one
consideration over others. The consideration that a theory favors is called a Fundamental Moral
Unit, or FMU.
Many of the classical Western philosophers from the Greek and roman traditions favor the individual
as the Fundamental Moral Unit. In these theories, the primary dictate is a negative statement: Don’t
get in an individual’s way in his or her pursuit of the good life.
Feminist theories tend to determine the best choice based on how well those choices strengthen the
connections among people and how well the needs of the most vulnerable are addressed. The
fundamental moral unit here is relationship between people and is based on the belief that care
should be given to those who can’t take care of themselves.
Some Eastern theories promote the overall good of the community first and foremost. And some
indigenous theories stress human’s connection with the world as a whole, with all natural systems
and species having an equal right to co-exist. People who grow up in these traditions expect that
they and others will sacrifice individual self-interest for the good of the group and the environment.
The Fundamental Moral Unit here is called ""aggregate good.""
Let’s consider a decision you might encounter if you were a member of your local city council. There
is a 50 acre parcel of land in your city’s jurisdiction that was designated a hundred years ago to
remain open space. Now the area contains some ancient Native burial grounds, but the tribe
members a hundred years and tribe members today are happy with the designated use as long as
the woodlands around the burial mounds stay intact. A developer would like to build a shopping mall
there. As a city council member, you get to decide how that land will be used today: should it remain
a park or become a shopping mall?
If you make your choice based only on the good that comes to individuals, you might be tempted to
go with the shopping mall. The mall will provide jobs for many of the people in the community who
are out of work and the additional income from the taxes from the new property owner and the
businesses will allow the city to reduce taxes for individual home owners.
Which choice best advances the overall good of the community in which I live? The policy choice
made previously to protect the land respected human connections to natural systems and was
sensitive to the culture and history of a minority group. Affirming that decision helps all people in
the community maintain trust in government.
We can see how the teachings from all of these traditions can help us in analyzing an important
choice. And they can help us answer one more question: Can I find a choice that doesn’t cause harm
to anyone or anything? If a shopping mall is a good idea for the community, alternative building sites
that don’t cause harm are waiting to be found.
2. Task – Watch the following videos:

3. Activity:
Western philosophy identifies the individual as the FMU; feminist theories tend to use relationship
and maintaining the connections among people; Eastern and indigenous theories put natural or
spiritual systems as the core to be maintained.
1. Give an example to show that you can use these different kinds of thinking to arrive at the same
or similar answers for what is morally permitted. Show how, in some instances, the answer to what
is morally permitted would be different.
Activity 9 - Incentive Gaming
1. Introduction
Written and Narrated by Associate Professor Lamar Pierce
Organizations and institutions frequently use financial incentives to motivate productive behavior.
The majority of people dislike effort to some degree, which forces authorities to either monitor
people intensely to ensure that they contribute, or to pay them based on their observable
performance. Salespeople are given commissions, bankers are given bonuses, and even teachers are
paid for student performance.
The problem with these incentives, of course, is that you need to decide on which metrics to base
the incentives, and then communicate those rules to people in order to motivate their performance.
You can only pay people based on what you observe, and you can’t observe everything. Which is
why we get incentive gaming.
Incentive gaming is when people manipulate pay-for-performance schemes in ways that increase
their compensation without benefiting the party that pays. Often referred to as ""rewarding A while
hoping for B"", incentive gaming is an example of how opportunistic and strategic people can be
when there are financial rewards involved. People will focus all their effort on those incentives that
pay them the best, and will even manipulate information to represent their performance on those
dimensions as higher than it actually is.
The financial crisis of 2008 provided several excellent examples of incentive gaming. Some mortgage
brokers, who were paid commissions for originating mortgages, quickly learned they could earn
more money if they relaxed the credit requirements for homebuyers. They were compensated based
on originating a loan, not on whether that loan defaulted in subsequent years, a costly outcome for
the bank and homeowner. The incentives designed to motivate effort and entrepreneurial behavior
also motivate people to increase their earnings in ways that hurt both their customers and market
efficiency.
Examples of incentive gaming are everywhere. When teachers are paid based on the standardized
test performance of their students, they focus much of their effort on teaching to the test and hurt
student education. When salespeople are given bonuses for reaching monthly sales targets, they
offer customers unnecessary discounts to buy now rather than later. When workers are paid based
on their relative rankings, they may focus their effort on sabotaging their coworker instead of
improving their own performance.
The implication of incentive gaming is that managers and policy-makers need to understand that
humans are clever and opportunistic beings. If you give them an incentive system, many of them will
figure out how to manipulate it to maximize pay and minimize effort. Designers of incentive-based
compensation systems must think carefully about unintended consequences, putting themselves in
the shoes of their employees, and ask, ""If I were given these incentives, what might I do to game
them?""
2. Task – Watch the following video:

3. Activity:
1. When have you been paid based on your performance, and how did this alter the way you
approached your job (for the better and for the worse)?
2. Grades are partly intended to provide incentives for quality work. How do students strategically
game grading systems in ways that might pervert this intent?
3. Is gaming unethical, or is it just rationally responding to the incentive system? Whose
responsibility is it to stop gaming: the person who designs the incentive system, or the person who
exploits it?
4. How do you draw the line between gaming and cheating?
.
Activity 10 - Instrumentalism
.
1. Task – Watch the following video:

2. Activity:
1. Psychologist Dan Ariely says that ""the first dishonest act is the most important one to prevent.""
Why does he say that? Do you agree?
2. Can you think of a situation where you were a victim of the slippery slope phenomenon?
3. Have you seen a friend or read about someone in the newspaper who started cutting little corners
and was soon in big trouble?
4. Cynthia Cooper, whistleblower of the infamous WorldCom financial fraud, wrote: ""People don’t
wake up and say, ‘I think I’ll become a criminal today.’ Instead, it’s often a slippery slope and we lose
our footing one step at a time."" Do you agree? Why or why not?
5. What can people do to prevent a mistake from snowballing down the slippery slope?
Activity 11 - Loss Aversion
1. Introduction:
The objective of this video is to introduce students to the concept of loss aversion so that they can
realize how it is one of a series of psychological forces that can cause them to act unethically, almost
without realizing it. It is a phenomenon that must be guarded against.
People can relate to the notion that loss aversion has an impact on tax cheating. People will cheat
more to avoid a loss than to secure a gain. So, if they have over-withheld, they are less likely to cheat
in order to obtain a larger tax refund (which they view as a gain) than they are to cheat if they have
under-withheld and are trying to avoid making a tax payment (which they view as a loss).
The two key things about loss aversion are that people hate losses more than they enjoy gains and
that they will take risks (including unethical actions) to avoid losses that they would not take to
secure gains. Students can usually grasp this idea and relate to it in their everyday lives. A student is
more likely to cheat to avoid flunking out of school (a loss) than to move from a B to an A (a gain),
unless she has a 4.0 GPA and views the potential B as a loss. In one experiment, subjects were more
likely to be in favor of gathering ""insider information"" and more likely to lie in a negotiation if facing
a loss rather than a potential gain. In real life, loss aversion means that people who have made
mistakes and perhaps even violated the law through carelessness or inattention often will, upon
realizing that fact, take their first consciously wrongful step in order to attempt to ensure that the
mistake is not discovered and they do not lose their job or their reputation. They will lie, they will
shred, and they will obstruct justice. Martha Stewart was not convicted of insider trading, but of
obstructing justice to prevent financial, reputational, and other losses that would come from an
insider trading conviction. Frank Quattrone, Wall Street’s most influential investment banker during
the dot.com boom, was not convicted of securities fraud but of inducing subordinates to destroy e-
mails that would have created the loss that follows such a conviction.
Loss aversion also means that firms that are performing well, but not as well as they expected to or
as other expected them to, may engage in unethical behavior because they frame their act of
profiting (but not profiting as much as expected) as a loss rather than a gain.
2. Task – Watch the following video:

3. Activity:
1. Studies show that people hate losses twice as much as they enjoy gains? Is that consistent with
your experience?
2. Have you ever been caught off guard doing something you probably shouldn’t have been doing
(eating the last cookie in the cookie jar, peeking in someone’s diary, touching your mother’s jewelry)
and when surprised with the question: ""What are you doing?"", quickly and almost automatically
(and falsely) said: ""Nothing!""
3. A recent study found that when people were under time pressure, they were more willing to
cheat to avoid losses (""losing the sale"") than to accrue gains (""getting the sale""). Do you think that is
how you would react?
4. Can you think of any situations where you or someone you know may have made decisions
affected by loss aversion?
5. What steps can people take to minimize the chance that loss aversion will help lead them to act
unethically?
Activity 12 - Moral Agent & Moral Subject
1. Introduction:
Written and Narrated by Professor Deni Elliott
More than 2000 years ago Aristotle and other wealthy Athenian men decided how people like
themselves should treat one another. Everyone should be free to pursue their own idea of the good
life as long as that person’s choice did not interfere with somebody else’s pursuit of the good life.
That idea of ""don’t cause unjustified harm"" was probably the first statement of Western Moral
Philosophy.
It’s only natural that we should first begin our ethical inquiry by thinking about ourselves, and how
we want to be treated by the people around us. Take a few minutes to watch children on a
playground. You don’t have to wait long before you hear somebody yell, ""That’s not fair!"" or
""Cheater."" By the time that kids are about 5, they begin to make rules for how to take turns and how
to give special privilege to those younger or less able. These children are practicing moral agency.
The difference between a moral agent and a subject of moral worth is this: A moral agent is
someone who has the power to intentionally cause harm to another. A subject of moral worth is any
being or natural system that is vulnerable – it can be harmed. It’s easy to see that children, pets, and
even natural resources like water are all subjects of moral worth. They are all clearly vulnerable to
harms caused by those who have power over them.
Throughout our history and across cultures, there have been people who were stripped of their
ability to have moral agency or sometimes even to count as subjects of moral worth because of
inescapable characteristics. That includes people from minority ethnic, racial or religious groups,
women, people who are lesbian, gay, or transgendered, and people with disabilities. The moral
obligation of moral agents is to use their power with care and never, intentionally cause unjustified
harm.
2. Task – Watch the following videos:

3. Activity:
1. Name some abilities that are essential for someone to be a moral agent.
2. What is necessary for someone to be a subject of moral worth?
3. What is the difference between someone being a subject of moral worth and someone being
included in the moral community?

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