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Group Theory

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January 31, 2014 / Leave a comment

CHTC 317
Spring, 2014
Mini Project 5: Group Theory
Due Date BOTH GROUPS: 3.17.14
Assignment- Use Headings!
Choose a group in which you are a current member. It can be a business, social, recreational, family or educational group. Analyze this group in terms of tenets of group behavior change theory. Be sure to refer to class notes. Please utilize the following headings to organize your paper:

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1. Group Membership: State why you are a member of this group. Discuss why people join groups, group attractiveness and how you perceive that this group will benefit (or not benefit) you. What needs are you getting met in this group?
2. Group Member Characteristics: Discuss each group member’s physical and personality characteristics – refer to group members by initials only! How often does this group meet and in what setting.
3. Group Goals: What is the goal of this group and how were they decided. Which type of goals are used in this group? – give an example.
4. Group Dynamics: Describe how the tenets of selective perception are at work in this group, including: level of anxiety, level of trust and gestalt theory.
5. Group Problems: Describe any problem members who may be part of this group – give examples.
Paper Format- USE HEADINGS PROVIDED
 4-page minimum.
 Double spaced, page numbers and 1” margins, 12 pt. font.
 Title page, including name, course number and section number.
 Be sure your paper flows and transitions from one thought to another.
 Proofread and spell check.

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franklin d roosevelt people person

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Compare “Gimpel the Fool” to “America and I.” How do the protagonists differ in their handling of societal pressures?

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Essay-writing guidelines/tips
When writing an assignment, how you present your analysis and argument are just as important as the information you are trying to present. If the reader cannot understand or follow your argument or information, your writing quickly loses its efficacy and credibility. However, if you create a structured essay with plenty of support, your writing will not only be more organized, but will assure the reader that your essay is the result of thoughtful analysis and not spur-of-the-moment thoughts put on paper. Here are some easy tips for creating a well-structured essay:

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1) Your thesis or overall statement should be present within the first paragraph. The thesis does not need to be anything too philosophical, but should let the reader know exactly what type of information they will be receiving in your essay. After a brief introduction to the topic you will be discussing, state your thesis or argument.
1. Good thesis/argument example: While known mostly for the prevalence of manufacturing within the city, the Jewish community of Lodz also thrived in local and national trade, the production of art, and the practice of religious traditions.
2) Each paragraph should have a transition sentence, or a sentence which sets the stage for the information in the next paragraph. Good “transition” words to use in these sentences include: However, Nonetheless, Additionally, Significantly, Regardless, Therefore, Similarly, Above all, Comparatively, and Likewise. Use a “transition” sentence at the end of your paragraph to connect ideas throughout your essay.
3) Topic sentences should ALWAYS relate to your thesis in some way, and should be strictly about the paragraph you are about to discuss. Topic sentences are always the first sentence in your paragraph. This helps the reader to understand why you are including certain information, and can keep you more focused on your communicative goals. If you do not include it in your thesis, do not include it in your topic sentences! For the thesis italicized above, here are some good and bad example sentences:
1. Good topic sentences:
1. Manufacturing served as the largest form of economic wealth in the city of Lodz. (Good, because the reader now knows that you will now be discussing
manufacturing, and you included this in your thesis.)
2. Goods, especially fabrics, served as a major source of exported trade for Lodz.
3. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, Jewish citizens of Lodz created a wide
variety of nationalist folk art.
4. Despite commitments with manufacturing, trade, and cultural enrichment, the Jews
of Lodz continued to involve themselves deeply with religious traditions and
practices. (Great, because not only does this sentence relate back to the thesis, but
ties together all of the ideas you already discussed.)
2. Bad topic sentences:
1. Catholics also lived in Lodz. (Catholics are not in the thesis. You would need to
slightly alter your thesis to include this information.)
2. Not many people today know where Lodz is. (This statement has nothing to do with
your thesis.)
3. Art was very important. (To whom? What is the point of this sentence?)
4) Always write a conclusion of at least three sentences (All paragraphs should have at least
three sentences). A conclusion contains relatively the same type of information that is
included in your introduction.

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mount rushmore

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must have color and tell how it was made and what kind of rock it was made of

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is death an evil

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must include an argument about the topic and and analysis

the argument must be about two thirds to three quarters of the first page and must be talking about death being a good thing and nothing to worry about, the wise man has nor fears

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Project life cycle Defining : GOOL specification , task , responsibilities Planning : schedules, budgets, resources, risks , staffing Executing: Status report changes , quality, forecasts Delivering: train customer ,transfer document , release resources , release staff , lessons learned

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January 31, 2014 / Leave a comment

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THEORY

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MY THEORIST IS DOROTHEA OREM
SELF CARE THEORY

*IT IS A GRAND NURSING THEORY*

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http://www.docshut.com/vivrt/self-care-deficit-theory-by-dorothea-orem.html

Keynote:

Do you have what we call “TAS”, otherwise known as Theory Aversion Syndrome? If you are not sure, let’s do a quick assessment. Do you experience nausea when you hear the word theory, dizziness and vomiting when you have to read the stuff, and do you fall out when asked to apply it?

If you are afflicted with this rather common nursing disorder, it may comfort you to know that you are not alone! Many nurses shudder at the mere thought of nursing theory, shaking their head in disbelief at the “pie in the sky” folks and sneering, “Don’t they know that nursing is a PRACTICE profession!” “Why don’t they climb down from their ivory tower and get in touch with reality!” Sound familiar? Cross (as cited in Cody, 2013) claims that without the dynamic interface between practice and theory, practice is “empty” and theory is “blind” (p. 7). Yet, if theory and practice are dependent on one another, why is there a continued disconnect between practitioners and theorists? In this unit we will explore the theoretical underpinnings for nursing practice. Students of advanced/doctorate nursing practice, are you open to the journey?

We invite you to begin your trip by recalling how your personal vision of nursing evolved. Weren’t you socialized through formal education and clinical practice to think like and act as a nurse? Wasn’t the socialization process so insidious that, today, what you have come to understand as the essence of nursing seems rather intuitive? Intuition is defined as “the direct knowing or learning without the conscious use of reasoning” (Webster’s New World College Dictionary, p. 750). But, without rational thought, how does one articulate what one knows? And, with the “what is nursing” unconsciously ingrained, how does one envision “what could be” (Rogers, 1989 as cited in Cody, 2013)? These philosophical queries, among others, continue to be the quest of many nursing scholars.

To satisfy the specifications of a profession, nursing has the responsibility to differentiate work provided by its members from that of others and to base that work on a substantive body of scientific knowledge. So, can the unique work (not to be confused with roles) of nursing be identified? Would distinguishing our work help to define the scientific body of knowledge required for nursing practice? Can the use of theory improve nursing outcomes?

Theory is defined by Chinn and Kramer (2008) as “a creative and rigorous structure of ideas that projects a tentative purposeful and systematic view of phenomena” (p. 219). Theorists use philosophical inquiry to explore the knowledge, value, meaning, and ethical factors related to a question of interest. So what theories serve as the basis for nursing practice?  Many of the practices of nurses/nursing are grounded in theory from other disciplines, such as family theory, developmental theories, theories of learning, change theory, system theory, so don’t forget to consider these theories when contemplating practice change.  However, as a discipline, nursing continues to establish a unique body of knowledge, therefore proposing nursing theories that distinguish the practice of our profession when those of other disciplines do not completely answer practice issues.  For instance, learning theories provide the backbone for teaching our patients, yet learning theories alone do not adequately reflect the process of learning applicable to a person acutely ill, or ethical dilemmas when providing sensitive information to a patient.  In the views of some, nursing theory development began in the 1800s with the vision of

Florence Nightingale. However, it was not until the last half of the 20th century that theoretical work proliferated. Theory development emerged when nurse leaders identified the need for a knowledge base to move nursing from a vocation to a profession and when scholars recognized that theories from other disciplines were inadequate to describe, explain, or predict nursing outcomes (Alligood & Toomey, 2010).

A prerequisite to using a theory in practice is an understanding of the theory. USA College of Nursing has an excellent library of nursing theorist videos available on mediasite. Most of the videos consist of interviews of prominent nursing theorists. The interviews are conducted by Dr. Jacqueline Fawcett, an internationally recognized authority on conceptual models of nursing and nursing theory development.

Dr. Fawcett is credited with a major breakthrough in nursing knowledge development for her suggestion of a paradigm perspective for nursing (Alligood & Toomey, 2010). Fawcett recognized four salient concepts (person, environment, health, and nursing) used by individual theorists as foundational tenets of their respective paradigms. Placing the work of individual theorists in a larger context (metaparadigm) strengthened the understanding of the knowledge development process (Alligood & Toomey, 2010).

Walker and Avant (2011) describe four levels of theory:

– Metatheory

– Grand Nursing Theory

– Middle-Range Theory

– Practice Theory

Metatheory –the focus is broad and seeks answers to philosophical questions about the purpose and kind of theory needed in nursing, proposed methodologies to evaluate nursing, and suggests how to best critique theories. Many of the classic works included in Cody’s text are examples of metatheory. A specific example is Carper’s 1978 paper on the Fundamental Pattern of Knowing.
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Grand Nursing Theory – is abstract (at varying degrees) and consists of “conceptual frameworks defining broad perspectives for practice and ways of looking at nursing phenomena based on these perspectives” (Walker & Avant, 2010, p. 6). Grand theories offer distinct nursing perspectives which have helped to distinguish the profession of nursing from medicine. Examples of grand nursing theories include the work of Neuman, Roy, Parse, Leininger, Watson, and many others. Be sure to view the videotapes of these and other theorists. If you could use a mental break right now, check out this youtube ion nursing theorists: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tz0oC0YqpO0

The following are a couple of ways that grand theories influence practice:

When applying Parse’s “humanbecoming theory” to a patient situation, nurses do not follow a problem-solving process, such as the nursing process. Nurses who use Parse’s theory as guidance seek to understand the person’s own concerns, hopes, and plans about their health. Therefore the desired outcome is set by the patient not the nurse (Parse, 1992). Her theory has been used in various clinical settings and nursing programs throughout the world.

Jean Watson’s “human caring theory,” can be applied not only to clinical nursing practice, but also to other roles in nursing, such as the nurse leader or administrator. Watson’s theory can be linked to evidence based practice, patient satisfaction, outcomes, and length of stay. Therefore, Watson patterned her theory to inform our nursing practice in a variety of ways (Zaccagnini & White, 2011, pg. 26).

Middle-Range Theory – is a more workable level of theory. Midrange theories have limited variables and scope and elucidate specific relationships between concepts. Therefore, midrange theories are more useful to research and practice. Examples of middle range theories in nursing include Meleis’ transition theory, Pender’s health promotion model, and Swanson’s theory of caring practice. Swanson’s theory of caring is a specific illustration of how a midrange theory evolves from research. The theory is founded on the results of three phenomenological studies that identified five caring processes (knowing, being with, doing for, enabling, and maintaining belief).

Practice Theory – is theory that leads to nursing modalities. We see the application of practice theory in the growing number of evidenced-based measures to manage nurse sensitive quality issues.

Now let’s connect the dots. Take a moment to reflect on the relationship of concepts and theory. Remember from previous course discussions that a concept is “a complex mental formulation of experience” (Chinn & Kramer, 2008, p. 187). In essence, concepts are the building blocks of theories and provide contextual meaning to thoughts and ideas.

Please note that there is a class discussion in this unit for you to participate in.

We hope that you have enjoyed the beginning of your trip to understanding the theoretical underpinnings of nursing. Be patient, knowledge discovery is a lifelong process. Happy journey!

(If you would like to end the keynote discussion on a funny note, check out this youtube regarding the fun theory…not a nursing theory, but don’t you love working in a fun environment? Wouldn’t it be great if we could make our work fun??? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2lXh2n0aPyw)

References

Alligood, M. R., & Tomey. A. M. (2010). Nursing Theorists and Their Work (7th ed.). Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby Elsevier.

Chinn, P. L., & Kramer, M. K. (2008). Integrated Theory Knowledge Development in Nursing (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier.

Cody, W. K. (2013). Philosophical and Theoretical Perspectives for Advanced Nursing Practice (5th ed.). Sudsbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

Walker, L.O., & Avant K. C. (2011). Strategies for Theory Construction in Nursing (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Webster’s new world college dictionary (4th ed.). (2010). Cleveland, OH: Wiley.

Zaccagnini, M.E., & White K. (2010). The Doctor of Nursing Practice Essential: A New Model for Advanced Practice Nursing. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Barlett.

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What Makes Art so Valuable to Steal?

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January 31, 2014 / Leave a comment

What Makes Art so Valuable to Steal?

To quote the FBI Art Crime Team website, “Art and cultural property crime- which includes theft, fraud, looting, and trafficking across state and international lines- is a looming criminal enterprise with estimated losses running as high as $6 billion annually.”
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In 1990, paintings and other items were stolen from the Isabella Steward Gardner Museum in Boston, Massachusetts, and valued at over $500 million. They were never recovered. Your job in this assignment is to be a detective reporter for the New York Times and gain an exclusive interview with one of the following:

a) owner of a stolen art piece or b) curator of the museum where a work of art was stolen

First Paragraph: You are not limited to the Isabella Steward Gardner Museum crime scene and may choose an art work from any of the crime scenes found in the web sites you are linked to below. When formatting your post to the Advanced Forum, include one paragraph that describes the crime scene you have chosen to study. Include the name of the stolen work, the players in the heist, such as the criminals and the museum curators, directors, detectives names. Include historical details such as the time, place and title of the stolen work, the date the work was made and the artist. .

Second Paragraph: Consider the many reasons why the work stolen is valued by a certain segment of society, other than the obvious financial one, and include those considerations in a second paragraph. Explain the New York Times interest in covering this story, since you are the reporter.

Third:  Tell us to whom you are asking your questions. Then ask your three questions. Respond to all ask of you and in at least 150 words. ——————————————————————————–

Art Crime Facts 1 ) Art Crime Info http://www.artcrime.info/facts.htm  2 ) FBI Art Crime Team  http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/vc_majorthefts/arttheft/art-crime-team/ 3 ) 10 Greatest Art Crimes http://listverse.com/2010/11/06/top-10-greatest-art-crimes/ 4) Your Brush with the Law http://www.yourbrushwiththelaw.com/intro.htm

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speculate on the impact of corporate contributions on the future of California and it's policy making.

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January 31, 2014 / Leave a comment

Open Secrets (Center for Responsive Politics) is a website that offers the behind the scenes information to politics. This is also known as the money trail.
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The link will take you to the donations for each Congress-member in California. http://www.opensecrets.org/races/ (Choose the state of California) Pick a representative in the state of California. See how much money they raised in the 2012 election.

Due to the changes in campaign finance laws (Citizens United- 2010) there has been an increase in campaign contributions. 2012 was the first national election to see the impact of Citizens United. For this assignment your job will be to speculate on the impact of corporate contributions on the future of California and it’s policy making.

Guiding questions: • What corporations provided campaign contributions for each candidate? • What major political issues are these corporations interested • Why do you think the corporation chose that candidate? • Why did some candidates raise more money than others? • What else did you find out about your candidate on Open secrets? Use the conclusion to share your personal beliefs and ideas on the impact of the Supreme Court decision. The majority of your paper should be factual and reporting what you found in your research.

Use the following websites for your assignment. (copy and paste links)

http://www.storyofstuff.org/movies-all/story-of-citizens-united-v-fec/

http://dyn.politico.com/tag/citizens-united

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/01/21/citizens-united_n_2519178.html

This is a midterm graded paper, I you must read and follow all the instruction then write the paper. write it like a college student, write your own opinion and perspective. And your paper should contain all the information from the guiding questions.

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FINANCE INSTITUTION AND MARKETS IN UAE

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January 31, 2014 / Leave a comment

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